Jobs are available to Union Geology graduates without a graduate degree. Just look at the department newsletters and alumni careers to see what our alums have done. It is true, however, that more advanced opportunities open up, and more quickly, if you have at least an M.S. degree. M.S. degrees typically take 2 years at a large university, during which time you should be given a substantial research or teaching assistantship to support you. This means that grad schools actually pay you to go to attend.
M.S. and Ph.D. programs span the entire range of the geosciences, so anyone can find a program that suits their research or professional goals and academic background. Most of our graduates find graduate school to be aa lot of fun. It is a time you can work on your favorite topic, surrounded by other geoscientists interested in the same thing.
Grad school is something you should start thinking about as a Junior. Talk to Union Geology faculty about grad schools in your fields of interest. Graduate school fliers usually come out in the fall, and are posted in Olin 322. Here is a list of geoscience graduate school web sites. Application deadlines are typically in January through February. If you are interested in K-12 school teaching, look at the Union University Educational Studies graduate program. Being a member of a geoscience society can help you better understand and take better advantage of post-graduate opportunities.