(Spring; Ellis). This course is a lower-division exploration of the creation, operation, and interaction of masculinities and femininities (in the plural) in Europe between roughly 1789 and the present. We will read both primary and secondary works on the topic. “Gender history” is not simply another way of saying “women’s history.” Instead, we also will employ gender as a lens through which to consider the experiences of both men and women during the period. Learning objectives for the term include critiquing the use of gender as a category of historical analysis; investigating the gap between prevailing modern notions about manhood and womanhood and the lived experiences of modern men and women; and teasing apart the intersection of gender with other factors, especially race, class, age, marital status, and religious identity.